Party cadres, now as less starry-eyed about Mao as they were less doom-and-gloom laden about religion, had come up for air and, beholding a mesmerizing world of material affluence beckoning on their horizon, began to relent.
That opened the way for the return of religion and seemed ample reward for the long-suffering religions. Religious institutions felt vindicated for not having hauled down their colors and for not piping to the new generation in the airs of revolutionary solidarity, in the hope that it would dance. As the flood receded, the rock reappeared. Churches bounced back as the government made good on promises of restitution for properties seized and wrongs committed. In the revised constitution of religious rights were reaffirmed under article 36, followed by the publication of Document 19 concerning religious policy in China.
Churches must be rebuilt, clergy educated, and believers protected, the declaration said. Some 4, Protestant and 2, Catholic churches were thus reopened or rebuilt. According to a report in , besides the 45, registered churches in existence, between 30, and 40, groups affiliated with the Protestant Three-Self Patriotic Movement were still waiting their turn to register. There was expansion, but it carried the double burden of secret believers assembling in unauthorized places and of officially co-opted members in licensed churches. The expansion pointed to the strategic role religion was poised to play in China and to qualitative shifts under way.
Reports in spoke of some 90, people being baptized in the Catholic Church in But the reports also noted the caution of the bishops about the numbers. It is a recipe for uncertain and turbulent times ahead.
Religion in the new China. Without being a cast-iron forecaster of the future, the statistics do show momentum and direction, with energy and dynamism in the underground church movement. Sources estimate between 30 and 50 million believers in that sphere, while others, such as the World Christian Encyclopedia , give 89 million. Sympathy for religion seems to run deep, as does official unease, all of which makes historical prediction hazardous. The revival flame fuels state repression on which it feeds, making religious practice disorganized, state control uneven, and record keeping uncertain.
The underlying trend, however, is steadily toward a reconfiguring of the Chinese intellectual landscape. Similarly, the one-child policy of the government has altered the basic family structure and is fueling a culture of individualism, which resonates with the message of individual salvation. When he was Communist Party leader, Jiang Zeming is reported to have responded to a question in early about the kind of legacy he would like to leave in China by saying he would propose to make Christianity the official religion of China, suggesting, perhaps in jest, replacing ideology with a faith-based order.
A growing number of U.
In fact, one study estimates that 54 percent of the Pentecostals practicing in America are U. There are said to be 59 million Pentecostals in North America. In New York City alone there are over 4, Pentecostal-style churches, with a membership of some , In a feature article in April , the New York Times gave extensive coverage to the Christian resurgence in terms of its distinctive manifestation among Africans in the United States.
It places the resurgence in the wider context of the charismatic Christian renewal. The article noted that revival is a recurrent theme in Christian history.
Time after time, evangelical fervor ignites, burns itself out and then re-emerges in some altered and surprising form, in constant cycles of migration and renewal. Now it appears that phenomenon is starting to manifest across a broad spectrum of Christian belief, challenging patterns of leadership and notions of religious identity that in some cases have stood for centuries. The effects in the United States are transformative, making America the last great frontier in the expansion and renewal of the faith.
Current indications are that the impetus is growing and is reshaping faith-communities. Roughly a third of the College of Cardinals currently hails from the global south, lending support to predictions that someday, perhaps quite soon, they will elect a non-European pope. If that were to occur, it would only echo what is happening in Catholic parishes throughout the developed world. In the United States, where a shrinking number of young men are willing to accept the sacrifices required for ordination, one in six of all diocesan priests, and one in three seminarians, are now foreign-born.
In an age of globalization and advanced secularization, the return of religion and its radical strains has superseded the center-periphery historiography of postcolonial discourse, and even the secularization thesis of development theory. The spillover in the United States has established the nation as a new critical frontier of World Christianity, the proving ground of means, forms, and styles best adapted to ride the flows of global traffic and the emergence of transnational communities in multicultural neighborhoods.
God, says de Tocqueville, has placed Americans upon a boundless continent, a continent designed for ambition, adventure, and enterprise. In his day de Tocqueville argued with justification that America has no neighbors, or at least no pestering neighbors. The sentiment persists, if it persists at all, with a complicated nuance best expressed in the words of Arthur Bird that America is bounded on the north by the North Pole, on the south by the Antarctic, on the east by the first chapter of the Book of Genesis, and on the west by the Day of Judgment.
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It is not surprising, therefore, that the Christian resurgence in Africa should thrive here with the sense of a homecoming. The New York Times article observes that the leaders of these immigrant churches are notable for their boundless confidence. Samuel P. David B. Barrett, George T.thacorpercbi.tk
The Last Great Frontier: Currents in Resurgence, Convergence, and Divergence of Religion
Kurian, and Todd M. Johnson, World Christian Encyclopedia , 2nd ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, , —18; and Todd M. Real Estate. Facebook Twitter Show more sharing options Share Close extra sharing options. May 9, Reporting from Tucson, Ariz. Its embattled history is what makes Arizona all the more inspiring to an expansive and diverse community of writers. A pink house in Tucson. He has penned 10 works of prose, including novels, memoir, and bilingual childrens books. He has been awarded Guggenheim and NEA fellowships.
More From the Los Angeles Times. Long-lost library sculpture returns to L. But the mystery continues. A section of the Well of the Scribes sculpture returns to the L.
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Central Library, 50 years after it vanished. The other two pieces are still missing. Its follow-up? No chance. These "Enon Conglomerates ", as they are known, were deposited by high energy, fast flowing rivers,  and are found between Calitzdorp and Oudtshoorn, where they form the strikingly red "Redstone Hills".
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The second special geological feature that marks the Little Karoo is the km-long fault line along the southern edge of the Swartberg Mountains. The Swartberg Mountains were lifted up along this fault, to such an extent that in the Oudtshoorn region, the rocks that form the base of the Cape Supergroup are exposed.
These are locally known as the Cango Group, but are probably continuous with the Malmesbury Group that forms the base of Table Mountain on the Cape Peninsula , and similar outcrops in the Western Cape. None of these regions is ever referred to, either geographically or locally, as "Karoo". From here, it continues eastwards into the western half of the Little Karoo. The Succulent Karoo biome is dominated by dwarf, leafy-succulent shrubs, and annuals, predominantly Asteraceae , popularly known as Namaqualand daisies, which put on spectacular flower displays covering vast stretches of the landscape in the southern spring-time August—September after good rains in the winter.
Grasses are uncommon, making most of the biome unsuitable for grazing. The low rainfall, in fact, discourages most forms of agriculture.
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